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Definition[ edit ] Guidelines for assigning authorship vary between institutions and disciplines. They may be formally defined or simply cultural custom. Incorrect application of authorship rules occasionally leads to charges of academic misconduct and sanctions for the violator.
A survey of a large sample of researchers who had received funding from the U.
In other fields only limited or no empirical data is available. Authorship in the natural sciences[ edit ] The natural sciences have no universal standard for authorship, but some major multi-disciplinary journals and institutions have established guidelines for work that they publish.
The journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PNAS has an editorial policy that specifies "authorship should be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work" and furthermore, "authors are strongly encouraged to indicate their specific contributions" as a footnote.
The American Chemical Society further specifies that authors are those who also "share responsibility and accountability for the results"  [ not in citation given ] and the U.
National Academies specify "an author who is willing to take credit for a paper must also bear responsibility for its contents.
Thus, unless a footnote or the text of the paper explicitly assigns responsibility for different parts of the paper to different authors, the authors whose names appear on a paper must share responsibility for all of it. This usage is described in the "Information Statements on the Culture of Research and Scholarship in Mathematics" section of the American Mathematical Society website,  specifically the statement: Joint Research and Its Publication.
In other branches of knowledge such as economics, business, finance or particle physicsit is also usual to sort the authors alphabetically.
According to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journalsdesignation as an author must satisfy four conditions. The author must have: Contributed substantially to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition of data, or the analysis and interpretation Drafted or provided critical revision of the article Provided final approval of the version to publish Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved Acquisition of funding, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
Many authors - especially those in the middle of the byline - do not fulfill these authorship criteria. The APA acknowledge that authorship is not limited to the writing of manuscripts, but must include those who have made substantial contributions to a study such as "formulating the problem or hypothesis, structuring the experimental design, organizing and conducting the statistical analysis, interpreting the results, or writing a major portion of the paper".
Like medicine, the APA considers institutional position, such as Department Chair, insufficient for attributing authorship. Authorship in the humanities[ edit ] Neither the Modern Languages Association  nor the Chicago Manual of Style  define requirements for authorship because usually humanities works are single-authored and the author is responsible for the entire work.
Growing number of authors per paper[ edit ] From the late 17th century to the s, sole authorship was the norm, and the one-paper-one-author model worked well for distributing credit. In particular types of research, including particle physics, genome sequencing and clinical trials, a paper's author list can run into the hundreds.
Inthe Collider Detector at Fermilab CDF adopted a at that time highly unorthodox policy for assigning authorship. CDF maintains a standard author list. All scientists and engineers working at CDF are added to the standard author list after one year of full-time work; names stay on the list until one year after the worker leaves CDF.
Every publication coming out of CDF uses the entire standard author list, in alphabetical order. Other big collaborations, including most particle physics experiments, followed this model. There were authors listed in an appendix and authorship was assigned to a group.
They strain guidelines that insist that each author's role be described and that each author is responsible for the validity of the whole work. Such a system treats authorship more as credit for scientific service at the facility in general rather that as an identification of specific contributions.
I have not been aware of any valid argument for more than three authors per paper, although I recognize that this may not be true for every field.A research paper does not normally need a title page, but if the paper is a group project, create a title page and list all the authors on it instead of in the header on page 1 of your essay.
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