The first article will be: The process might reveal that at the origin of painting and sculpture there lies a mummy complex.
Learning theories develop hypotheses that describe how this process takes place. The scientific study of learning started in earnest at the dawn of the 20th century. The major concepts and theories of learning include behaviourist theories, cognitive psychology, constructivism, social constructivism, experiential learning, multiple intelligence, and situated learning theory and community of practice.
Behaviourism The behaviourist perspectives of learning originated in the early s, and became dominant in early 20th century. The basic idea of behaviourism is that learning consists of a change in behaviour due to the acquisition, reinforcement and application of associations between stimuli from the environment and observable responses of the individual.
Behaviourists are interested in measurable changes in behaviour. Thorndike, one major behaviourist theorist, put forward that 1 a response to a stimulus is reinforced when followed by a positive rewarding effect, and 2 a response to a stimulus becomes stronger by exercise and repetition.
In his view, rewarding the right parts of the more complex behaviour reinforces it, and encourages its recurrence. Therefore, reinforcers control the occurrence of the desired partial behaviours. Learning is understood as the step-by-step or successive approximation of the intended partial behaviours through the use of reward and punishment.
Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology was initiated in the late s, and contributed to the move away from behaviourism. People are no longer viewed as collections of responses to external stimuli, as understood by behaviourists, but information processors.
Cognitive psychology paid attention to complex mental phenomena, ignored by behaviourists, and was influenced by the emergence of the computer as an information-processing device, which became analogous to the human mind. In cognitive psychology, learning is understood as the acquisition of knowledge: Therefore, its preferred methods of instruction are lecturing and reading textbooks; and, at its most extreme, the learner is a passive recipient of knowledge by the teacher.
Constructivism Constructivism emerged in the s and s, giving rise to the idea that learners are not passive recipients of information, but that they actively construct their knowledge in interaction with the environment and through the reorganization of their mental structures.
Learners are therefore viewed as sense-makers, not simply recording given information but interpreting it. The growing evidence in support of the constructive nature of learning was also in line with and backed by the earlier work of influential theorists such as Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner.
Social learning theory A well-known social learning theory has been developed by Albert Bandura, who works within both cognitive and behavioural frameworks that embrace attention, memory and motivation.
His theory of learning suggests that people learn within a social context, and that learning is facilitated through concepts such as modeling, observational learning and imitation.
The importance of positive role modeling on learning is well documented. Criticism against the information-processing constructivist approach to cognition and learning became stronger as the pioneer work of Vygotsky as well as anthropological and ethnographic research by scholars like Rogoff and Lave came to the fore and gathered support.
The essence of this criticism was that the information-processing constructivism saw cognition and learning as processes occurring within the mind in isolation from the surrounding and interaction with it. Knowledge was considered as self-sufficient and independent of the contexts in which it finds itself.
List of psychoanalytical theorists. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Some the most influential psychoanalysts and theorists, philosophers and literary critics who were or are influenced by psychoanlaysis include: Karl Abraham - psychoanalyst; Nicolas Abraham - psychoanalyst. Find this Pin and more on Influential theorists by nicola. Jerome Seymour Bruner is a psychologist who has made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology, as well as to history and to the general philosophy of education. Dec 01, · Influential Theorists: Andre Bazin – The Ontology Of The Photographic Image Andre Bazin is undoubtedly a famous figure in film criticism and film theory. Bazin was a co-founder of the influential film magazine Cahiers du Cinema, a mentor and friend of Francois Truffaut and firm supporter of realism.
In the new view, cognition and learning are understood as interactions between the individual and a situation; knowledge is considered as situated and is a product of the activity, context and culture in which it is formed and utilized.
Experiential learning Experiential learning theories build on social and constructivist theories of learning, but situate experience at the core of the learning process. They aim to understand the manners in which experiences — whether first or second hand — motivate learners and promote their learning.
Rogers put forward the following insight: He supports a dynamic, continuous process of change where new learning results in and affects learning environments. This dynamic process of change is often considered in literatures on organizational learning.
His theory also challenges the understanding of intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. Although his work is speculative, his theory is appreciated by teachers in broadening their conceptual framework beyond the traditional confines of skilling, curriculum and testing.
The recognition of multiple intelligences, for Gardner, is a means to achieving educational goals rather than an educational goal in and of itself. They are developed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger.
Situated learning theory recognizes that there is no learning which is not situated, and emphasizes the relational and negotiated character of knowledge and learning as well as the engaged nature of learning activity for the individuals involved.
According to the theory, it is within communities that learning occurs most effectively. Interactions taking place within a community of practice — e. Thomas Sergiovanni reinforces the idea that learning is most effective when it takes place in communities.
He argues that academic and social outcomes will improve only when classrooms become learning communities, and teaching becomes learner-centered. Communities of practice are of course not confined to schools but cover other settings such as workplace and organizations.
The current discussion about 21st century skills leads classrooms and other learning environments to encourage the development of core subject knowledge as well as new media literacies, critical and systems thinking, interpersonal and self-directional skills.
For example, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills P21 defines the following as key: English, math, geography, history, civics and 21st century themes global awareness, civic literacy, health literacy, environmental literacy, financial, business and entrepreneurial literacy ; learning and innovation skills creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration ; information, media and technology skills e.
ICT literacy, media literacy ; and life and career skills flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self-direction, social and cross-cultural skills, productivity and accountability, leadership and responsibility.
One main learning method that supports the learning of such skills and knowledge is group learning or thematic projects, which involves an inquiry-based collaborative work that addresses real-world issues and questions.Behavioral theories of child development focus on how environmental interaction influences behavior and are based on the theories of theorists such as John B.
Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. F. Skinner. These theories deal only with observable behaviors. Explore nicola's board "Influential theorists" on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Toddler development, Early childhood education and Early education. Discover recipes, home ideas, style inspiration and other ideas to try.
Political philosophy, also known as political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, Another influential extant Indian treatise on political philosophy is the Sukra Neeti. The 14th-century Arab scholar Ibn Khaldun is considered one of the greatest political theorists.
Dec 01, · Influential Theorists: Andre Bazin – The Ontology Of The Photographic Image Andre Bazin is undoubtedly a famous figure in film criticism and film theory. Bazin was a co-founder of the influential film magazine Cahiers du Cinema, a mentor and friend of Francois Truffaut and firm supporter of .
Find this Pin and more on Influential theorists by nicola. Jerome Seymour Bruner is a psychologist who has made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology, as well as to history and to the general philosophy of education.
List of psychoanalytical theorists. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Some the most influential psychoanalysts and theorists, philosophers and literary critics who were or are influenced by psychoanlaysis include: Karl Abraham - psychoanalyst; Nicolas Abraham - psychoanalyst.