Eliot An epigraph is a brief excerpt or quote, borrowed from one writer by another, which commonly appears beneath a title or heading like the one directly above. A literary allusion or reference occurs when one writer alludes or refers to another writer's work. Which poets have been alluded to the most by other writers?
Literacy, the ability to read and write, was a skill limited largely to clerical elites in Medieval Europe. These elites read and wrote Latin, the language of the church and the universities.
The late medieval growth of cities and towns included a dramatic increase in the number of merchants, traders, and artisans. These towns-people maintained businesses that required the ability to write basic correspondence and maintain account books.
By most European merchants were literate, and by many of their wives could also read and write. The growing numbers of functionally literate urbanites sought educational opportunities for their children as well. Townspeople broke the clerical monopoly on learning and created schools.
Italy, with four cities of populations about or more than one hundred thousand, led the way in education of urban boys and girls. Northern European schools served mainly to educate young boys for a career in the church.
Similar schools existed in Italy, but Italian towns also had two other types of schools: Girls found their educational opportunities limited by gender as well as class. Girls were limited to elementary education unless the family hired private tutors or took an active role in home schooling.
As a result, they were rarely taught Latin and had no access to the universities. Nonetheless, females constituted an active audience for the growing number of works published in the vernacular, or native spoken language of the region.
Writing for an Audience. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, authors across Europe began to write popular works in the vernacular. Latin was still necessary for authors seeking a European-wide audience of literate elites, but the vernacular provided a local audience of individuals more apt to share the sentiments of a regional storyteller.
Vernacular authors drew on the twelfth- and thirteenth-century troubadour and courtly romance predecessors but also wrote for a broader, nonnoble audience.
Vernacular literatures tended to include more romance and sensuality than the Latin literature of the period, while still maintaining the moral and ethical emphasis evident in the Latin literature.
Three Italian poets from Florence, Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio, turned their native Tuscan dialect into the standard Italian literary language.
Dante's Divine Comedy circa is an allegorical trilogy that describes one man's journey through Hell, Purgatory and Paradise. Virgil, an antirepublican poet of Imperial Rome, guides Dante through Hell and Purgatory but is unable to proceed further because he is a pagan.
Reason, represented by Virgil, can lead one only so far. Beatrice, the love of Dante's youth, leads Dante through Paradise. Dante's beloved Beatrice stands metaphorically for God's love. The poet utilized the logic of medieval theologians throughout the book.
Hell is divided into levels, and the sinners are placed into a level that corresponds to the evilness of their sins.
The work is a fine example of medieval scholasticism and its mathematical structure and reliance on reason and logic. The poem reflects many cultural issues such as the relationship between reason and faith, the tension between supporters of the emperor and those of the pope, and the psychological aspects of medieval religion.
Dante offers poignant criticism of church authorities and a descriptive analysis of social and political problems within his profoundly Christian poem. Petrarch's vernacular works are more secular than Dante's works. Petrarch's writings mark a clear shift from the medieval scholasticism evident in Dante to a new tradition known as Renaissance Humanism.
Humanism, or the Studia Humanitatis, was a curriculum that focused not on the mathematical logic and reason of the scholastics, but rather on the study of Latin and Greek texts. Humanists studied grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and ethics, whereas the scholastics studied arithmetic, astronomy, music, geometry, rhetoric, grammar, and logic.
Early humanists, such as Petrarch, were frequently poets or orators. They were not bound to Scholastic traditions of logical analysis of recognized authorities.
Rather than provide mere commentaries on previously written works, humanists created original literature in both the classical and the vernacular languages. As a young man, Petrarch wrote stunning love poetry in a four-teen-line format that has come to be known as the Italian, or Petrarchan, sonnet.
Influence of the Classics. Petrarch and other Italian urbanites of the fourteenth century shared a kindred spirit with the great urban cultures of classical Athens and Republican Rome. Merchants and urbanites, steeped in the daily administration of Florence's republican government, found the call to political activity of the classics more pertinent than the contemplative life of the scholastic theologians.
Petrarch studied classical Latin and learned some Greek. His enthusiasm for the classics was contagious, and twenty years after Petrarch's death the Florentines invited a Byzantine scholar and diplomat named Manuel Chrysoloras to lecture in Florence.
In the decades following his visit, a revival of Greek studies and literature in Italy profoundly influenced science, astronomy, and philosophy."The Pardoner's Tale," written by Geoffrey Chaucer, exhibits several qualities of life, as we know it today.
In this story, Chaucer writes about a man who preaches to his audience for money. This leaves the reader with the knowledge that money is the root of all evil. Dante and Chaucer: Trailblazers for the Reformation of the Catholic.
Inferno Lecture 2. Author Durante Alighieri - Usually shortened to Dante. Title La Mia Commedía. Inferno Like Chaucer's English, which became the standard for literary English. Gnosticism has a dualism - good god vs evil god. You learn secret knowledge to align you with the good god.
Once you got gnosis, you have put this world behind. Yet Chaucer places him at the very bottom of humanity because he uses the church and holy, religious objects as tools to profit personally. In the other great classic of the Middle Ages, Dante's Divine Comedy, Dante arranges hell into nine concentric circles.
Essay about Good and Evil in Dante’s Divine Comedy and Chaucer’s The Wife of Bath - Good and evil are concocted differently in every imagination.
To some, evil is the most appalling sins, including such heinous acts such as murder, rape, distortion, or betrayal. Chaucer and the Poets Weatherbee, Winthrop Published by Cornell University Press Weatherbee, Winthrop.
Statius and Dante's Statius A of evil, and the rariry of their descents to the earth enable them to know truth . [3. ]. Although Chaucer‘s Canterbury Tales and Dante’s Divine Comedy are masterpieces and essential reading, perhaps the best route into medieval poetry – as with any poetry – is to start small.
What follows is our pick of the best short medieval poems written in English.